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33 result(s) for "Bravard, Jean-Paul,"
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Sedimentary crisis at the global scale
Volume 1: \"The Earth's oceans are currently undergoing unprecedented changes: rivers have suffered a severe reduction in their sediment transport, and as a result, sediment input to the oceans has dropped lower than ever before. These inputs have varied over millennia as a result of both natural occurrences and human actions, such as the building of dams and the extraction of materials from riverbeds. Sedimentary Crisis at the Global Scale 1 examines how river basins have been affected by the sedimentary crises of various historical epochs. By studying global balances, it provides insights into the profound disruption of the solid transport of fluvial bodies. The book also explores studies of various rivers, from the Amazon, which remains relatively unaffected, to dying rivers such as the Colorado and the Nile.\" -- Back cover.
Sedimentary Crisis at the Global Scale 2
Sedimentary Crisis at the Global Scale 2
The great deltas of the globe have been threatened for several decades but their decline now appears to be inevitable; they are receding and losing the fertility that supports their tens of millions of inhabitants. Our deltas are victims of the dramatic deterioration in the volume of continental sediment brought by rivers to the oceans.By nature, deltas are fragile eco- and geological organisms. For centuries, they have been subject to human actions in the Mediterranean and European world, and today a deep crisis is affecting the great tropical deltas. A chapter is also devoted to concerns facing the Mississippi, an \"aging delta of the new world\".Sedimentary Crisis at the Global Scale 2 discusses possible strategies to protect the deltas of the world - or at least adapt them and their dependencies to the changes they face. Several models are possible, including comprehensive protection (such as in the Netherlands) and cautious and respectful opening to the forces of the oceans in an environment-first perspective.
Sedimentary crisis at the global scale.: (Large rivers, from abundance to scarcity)
Sedimentary crisis at the global scale.: (Large rivers, from abundance to scarcity)
The Earth's oceans are currently undergoing unprecedented changes: rivers have suffered a severe reduction in their sediment transport, and as a result, sediment input to the oceans has dropped lower than ever before. These inputs have varied over millennia as a result of both natural occurrences and human actions, such as the building of dams and the extraction of materials from riverbeds. Sedimentary Crisis at the Global Scale 1 examines how river basins have been affected by the sedimentary crises of various historical epochs. By studying global balances, it provides insights into the profound disruption of the solid transport of fluvial bodies. The book also explores studies of various rivers, from the Amazon, which remains relatively unaffected, to dying rivers such as the Colorado and the Nile.
Old Societies and Deltaic Crises
Old Societies and Deltaic Crises
Deltas are zones constructed by sedimentary materials of continental origin that are partly redistributed by the sea. The Nile delta has undergone the physical processes that are classic for this type of environment. Worldwide deceleration of the rise in sea levels around 6,500‐5,500 BC was the primary cause of accumulation of fluvial silts on the alluvial sand in the former riverbed, rediscovered in its buried location. Sedimentary construction of the Camargue delta has followed a specific process, which has combined a continental trajectory and a dynamic that is unique to the deltaic zone. Medieval construction works obtained the effect of containing the flow rate of the flood of deltaic branches between dykes. The lack of sediments is the common denominator of all dynamic deltaic processes in old developed deltas. One of the first areas on Earth where accelerated subsidence has been studied is the lower plain of the Po, both fluvial and deltaic in nature.
The Recent Hydrosedimentary History of Some of the Globe's Largest Rivers
The Recent Hydrosedimentary History of Some of the Globe's Largest Rivers
This chapter begins with the Amazon river, the most powerful river in the world, which has been changed little by humankind. It looks at the example of the Mississippi, a large river that has long been modified by humankind, and presents three overexploited rivers: the Nile and the Ebro, Mediterranean tributaries, and the Colorado. The extremely high levels of biodiversity in the Amazon could stem from the coexistence of “primary” riparian successions and mosaics of firm land belonging to old floodplains raised by tectonics. The great investment efforts made in constructing reservoirs on Chinese rivers are revealed through its efforts concerning sediment dynamics. The Mekong is the second largest basin in the world after the Amazon in terms of fish diversity, and it is the site of the most productive fisheries on the planet. The Colorado's only channel along the last 100 km downstream of the Morelos dam has been invaded by vegetation and sediment.
From Hills to the Ocean: Production, Transfer and Trapping
From Hills to the Ocean: Production, Transfer and Trapping
Today, French pedologist Fournier is seen as a precursor in the field of scientific study that is concerned with in this chapter, even though the overall values he produced were distorted by an overrepresentation of heavily loaded rivers, like those in China, and an overrepresentation of highly productive small and medium basins, such as those on the Italian peninsula. One important aspect of denudation is the fact that river deposits, stored for millennia, even longer as particles, have undergone chemical processes in the long term. Agricultural erosion is the primary contributor to suspended material transport. The most extreme erosion phenomena can be found in the northeastern part of the Loess Plateau in the form of gully erosion and mass movement. Dam efficiency in terms of sediment transfer interception depends on numerous factors. A high reservoir volume/annual discharge ratio is responsible for significant trapping.
Exploited Nature and the River's Responses to the Globe's Surface
Exploited Nature and the River's Responses to the Globe's Surface
A landscape in equilibrium (always relative) presents erosion phenomena in elevated river basins and on river banks. The sediment thus produced is transported downstream, but part of it is deposited at the surface of the floodplain. This chapter distinguishes the accidental crisis, which is the brief, generally unsustainable response of the landscape to meteorological stress, for example. There are several types of erosive crises. The chapter distinguishes crises related to the destabilization of the soil and those created by the exploitation of mineral resources. The plains of Russia and Belarus are one of the regions of the globe most affected by accelerated erosion, covering an area of 4 million km 2 . Excessive deforestation and agriculture are capable of destabilizing considerable areas. The predatory exploitation of a mineral resource can cause a considerable volume of material to be displaced. This may be the case for underground resources extracted in galleries.
The Aging Delta of a Country in the New World, the Mississippi
The Aging Delta of a Country in the New World, the Mississippi
The Mississippi delta, encompassing an area of 25,000 km 2 , entirely belongs to the state of Louisiana, as much from a physical standpoint as a cultural and human one. The lower Mississippi plain, several kilometers wide, is bordered by a double row of modest cliffs, named bluffs, ranging from 15‐60 m in height, and providing a natural limit to the spread of flooding. Construction of the artificial levee began in 1717 in New Orleans, upstream and downstream of the city that was the center of initial organized protection. The notion of a delta is more complex in the lower Mississippi valley. From the Mississippi delta and the Arkansas delta, located upstream, to the Mississippi River delta, which is the delta itself, the Mississippi has a somewhat disrupted geography in terms of its toponymy. The Atchafalaya flow rate has benefitted from partial defluviation of the Mississippi, which took place in the 16th Century.